All Documents and Media
|Hitchcock Foundation Lectures: "The Development of the Concept of Chemical Bond." January 17, 1983.
University of California, Berkeley.
Research by Irving Langmuir. (2:30)
Get the Flash Player to see this audio player.
Download Audio File (Mp3) File to Your Computer
Linus Pauling: Langmuir in 1881 to 1957. In 1919 he had two or three papers in the Journal of the American Chemical Society and a couple of notes in Science in 1920 and he gave many lectures. These were long papers, with a much more detailed discussion of individual substances
than in G.N.'s 1916 paper. Lewis...Langmuir, introduced something into chemistry -- the word covalent.
This was the first time that anyone had spoken of covalence and covalent bonds. He introduced the idea of formal charge saying
you can split the electron pair, that is the chemical bond, between the two atoms and then count up how many electrons there
are on each atom and what its resultant charge would be, an important idea. He was really very clever. He said nitrous oxide
is not a ring, the way some people had written it, it isn't N-O-N with oxygen in the middle, it's N-N-O with an oxygen on
one end, a nitrogen atom in the middle, a nitrogen atom on the other end, formal charge -1 for the end nitrogen, +1 for the
middle nitrogen, and zero for oxygen. He introduced the principle of electroneutrality, that the charges on the atoms need
to be 0 or +1 or -1, that is almost zero. That is, you can take an electron off of an atom. The first ionization energy for
some atoms isn't awfully, some metals isn't very great, you can take an electron off. Takes much more energy to pull a second
electron off so it's unlikely that that would be the situation in a stable molecule or crystal. This was a very valuable principle
overlooked. He had an idea that nickel tetracarbonyl is octavalent, that the nickel atom forms four double bonds with oxygen
and this was required, rather than G.N. Lewis's structure with single bonds around the nickel atom, by his electroneutrality
ClipCreator: Linus Pauling
Associated: Irving Langmuir, G.N. Lewis
Clip ID: 1983v.2-langmuir
Full WorkCreator: Linus Pauling
Associated: University of California, Berkeley
Date: January 17, 1983
Copyright: More Information